Literature Review

Literature Review


            Uncontrolled diabetes is one of the leading causes of death and impairments in the United States. It occurs when diabetes is not properly managed. Current research indicates that the problem is tied to several social, demographic and health-related factors (Grams & Garvey, 2015). The literature review compares the research questions, sample populations, and limitation of studies of eight different with the PICOT question of the proposal topic problem.

Comparison of Research Questions

The PICOT questions for this proposal revolved around the prevalence of uncontrolled diabetes, the comorbidities associated with it and the intervention strategies that can be used to manage diabetes to ensure it does not degenerate into uncontrolled diabetes.   The research question of the first article focuses on anti-hypertensive treatments for cardiovascular diabetes comorbidities. The second article focuses on weight loss as an intervention strategy. The third article research question addresses the long-term treatment strategies and their impact on diabetes incidence (Haw, & Galaviz, 2017). The fourth article deals with insulin omission and how it leads to uncontrolled diabetes.

 The fifth article questions the prevalence of Diabetes type II in the United States. Article number six deals with the history of diabetes in the United States. The seventh article explores the prevalence of hyperglycemia among the elderly. The last one has addressed the risks associated with Diabetes Mellitus in the elderly population. There is a trend evident in the research questions in the articles. Three of the research questions are related to the prevalence of the disease. Three questions revolve around intervention strategies while two research questions deal with comorbidities.  All the research questions are supportive of the research paper because they all focus on at least one aspect raised by the PICOT question.

Comparison of Sample Populations

The population of the PICOT question is people living with diabetes. All the articles have a sample of people with diabetes. The first article has a sample of 100 people with diabetes and has been treated for more than a year (Brunström, & Carlberg, 2016). The second one conducts a laboratory evaluation of people with diabetes. The third one focuses on adults with the disease while the fourth article has a general sample of patients with diabetes. Article number five has featured a laboratory evaluation of patients with diabetes. The sixth and the seventh article do not have a sample population because they are literature reviews. The final article has a sample of patients with diabetes mellitus. As such, there is a similarity between the population of the PICOT question and the populations sampled by six out of eight articles used in this study. Thus, the sampled population in those articles will contribute significantly to the PICOT research.  

Comparison of Limitations of Studies

The potential limitation of the solution to the PICOT question is that it might not represent the general population of people with diabetes. Another one is that it is not easy to analyze hypoglycemia in these stages. They do not closely resemble the limitation of the studies in the eight articles the research plans to use. The limitation of the study conducted in the first article is the sampling method failed to get enough people with diabetes that had been treated for a year and more. The second one was that the randomized controlled trials could not effectively evaluate behavioral modifications.  That of the second study was the impossibility of quantifying the results of the therapies involved over a short time.

The third article had one limitation. It was lack of effective control to determine the long-term effects of prevention strategies on the incidence of diabetes. Article number four also had one. It is the fact that it did not conduct a clinical test but reviewed primary literature. The fifth, sixth and seventh article did not indicate any limitation while that of the final article was that it could not determine whether the risk of fall was posed by diabetes mellitus or related physical comorbidities. There is a stark difference between the potential limitations to the solution of the PICOT question and those indicated in the eight articles. Only one article has a limitation that closely resembles the potential solution to the PICOT questions. It implies that most of the articles will not support the study regarding limitations.


The review of the literature has compared the research questions, the population and the limitation of the proposed study with those of the eight articles that have already been identified. Regarding research questions, there is a close relationship between the questions in the article and the PICOT questions. The same applies to the population, even though two articles did not use any population. However, each of the eight studies explored has a different limitation. The limitations do not closely mirror the potential limitation to the solution of the PICOT question. As such, the research questions and the populations of the articles will be instrumental in this study, but the limitations will not provide any significant assistance. 


Brunström, M. & Carlberg, B. (2016). Effect of antihypertensive treatment at different blood pressure levels in patients with diabetes mellitus: Systematic review and meta-analyses, BMJ. 352, 17

Grams, J., & Garvey, W. T. (2015). Weight loss and the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes using lifestyle therapy, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery: Mechanisms of action. Current Obesity Reports4(2), 287–302

Haw, J.S. & Galaviz, K. I (2017). Long-term sustainability of diabetes prevention approaches: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA internal medicine177 (12), 1808–1817

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